# FSharp - Category Theory - Monoid

## Introduction

This is the first post on category theory terms, which is sort of like a mathematical version of design patterns in the functional world, but as you might expect they are at a much lower level than the OO design patterns.

One particularly weird thing to get your head around with category theory terms, is they don’t apply to the data type or the function in isolation. They apply to the function over a given data type, so its worth bearing this in mind when you read about category theory.

## What is a Monoid?

The short description is:

A monoid is an operation on a datatype which is binary, associative and has an identity

Now, this is one of those sentences with a heap of stuff in that makes no sense unless you define it, so lets unpack that a bit:

## Binary operation

To be a binary operation simply means takes to inputs of a set, and produces an output from the same set e.g.

but these are not binary operations because the output type is not of the same set as the inputs (unless the inputs are strings that is):

## Associative operation

To be an associative operation means that the order of application doesn’t matter. So for example adding 3 integers `(1 + 2) + 3 = 6`

produces the same output written as `1 + (2 + 3) = 6`

and thats true for all types of addition. The same is also true for multiplication so `4 * (2 * 3) = 24`

and `(4 * 2) * 3 = 24`

.

## The Identity

Identity in category theory world means a value that does nothing (i.e. returns the original value). So for example `1 + 0 = 1`

or `2 * 1 = 2`

. That is literally all the identity is, its a value which when applied to the data type and function returns the original input.

## Examples of Monoids

So we’ve already seen the simplest and most obvious examples these are:

- Add

- Multiply

String concatenation also fits too:

- String concatenation

All of these comply with our above rules. And are pretty straightforward.

## Examples of things that aren’t Monoids

- Subtraction

Subtraction doesn’t apply because it isn’t associative, changing the order of the subtraction matters.

- Division

Similar to subtraction, division is not associative.

## Summary

Thats just about it, after thinking about what a monoid is and how it applies to code for a bit I suspect they’ll start appearing like when learning about design patterns, it takes a little while to familiarise yourself to the terminology and what to look for. Its a bit harder in this case because the concept is slightly more abstract and the terminology doesn’t really imply what it means to anybody except mathematicians.

## A few resources I’ve read/used

Mostly I’ve been listening to the category theory episodes of the lambdacast podcast to learn these techniques, but have also read the following blog posts too: